Why most Karate Manuals Suck…

As someone with a degree in education and additional certifications in teaching on top of it, I have to say, most karate manuals suck. I have had the pleasure of owning a wide variety of manuals over the years and have reviewed hundreds that I’ve simply chosen where not worth purchasing. On my personal FB account I have been demonstrating what I think makes a good manual vs a meh manual.

So why do most of them suck?

Simple! They’re usually written by people who have no clue how to teach. “But Matt,” you say, “surely all these authors are/ were martial arts instructors!” True! But that still doesn’t mean they have a functional knowledge of how to teach. Most martial arts instructors fail to study pedagogy, motivational theory, diverse learners, educational psychology, adolescent psychology, child development, conflict resolution, classroom management, etc.

They teach, but they don’t really know how to teach. They simply go, “Well, that’s how my sensei did things! It worked for them! It worked for me! It will work for my students!” That is the most egocentric approach to education ever devised! It is why most martial arts instructors lose student after student, have to use educational crutches for motivation, such as belts, and often can’t keep high ranking students.

If you are going to do martial arts, study the martial arts. If you are going to teach, study how to teach. If you are going to write books, study writing. If you are going to write manual, study manuals. It seems simple, but most people are blinded by their own reputation and neglect to improve their craft. Want to write a book…? HIT THE BOOKS, SLACKER!

“But Matt,” you say, “you are just critiquing and aren’t being constructive at all! Maybe you’re the egotistical fart face?”

Maybe I’m not done writing yet!

Before starting the process of writing a manual it is very important to consider your audience and your goals. Are you writing this book for instructors? Are you writing this book as a basic reference? Are you writing this book for beginners? Are you writing this book for your personal students? Are you writing this book for those outside your current sphere of influence? All of the above?

Once that is establish take a refreshment course on Types of Learners. Perhaps review the 4 Main Learning Types: Visual, Audio, Reading/ Writing (Analytic Learners), and Kinesthetic. Also known as VERN. Perhaps brush up on Garner’s Multiple Intelligences. Maybe review the 7 Types of Learners: which is essentially VERN plus Logical Learners, Social Learners, and Solitary Learners.

Now here is the important part… ready?

INCORPORATE IT IN YOUR BOOKS!

“It’s elementary, my dear Watson.”

A book with descriptions but no photos, at best only hits 1/4 of your target audience! A book with pictures but no description, at best only hits 1/4 of your target audience! A book with diagrams but no descriptions nor photos, at best only hits 1/4 of your target audience! And if there is no audio CD or online sound files, you are again missing out on upward of 1/4 your target audience!

In short, most karate manuals sucks!

So what can you do to improve it?

Firstly, your manual should include photographs, descriptions, diagrams, AND audio files about EVERYTHING. This is the one of the best ways to hit on the 4 Main Types of Learners (VERN). Continuing on this, it would behoove any future author to include study tips that hit on solitary and social practice, as well as additional tips, homework, and review.

Such as making up a song to remember the order of Kihon Waza, or the order of techniques in a kata. Taking notes on what you have learned in class. Comparing your understanding of a technique with a training partner of the same level. Doing fun drills to stay active and involved. Maybe throw in a crossword puzzle with the name of kata, kihon, and kumite techniques. Make your manual engaging!

Secondly, it should be written in such a manner that a beginner, with no previous training, can pick it up and understand what the book is describing. That is, unless your book is purely written for advanced students and instructors.

Following that, you should remember that it is completely asinine to try and sum up an entire style, with any depth, in a single book! Think of how long it takes to read the book… two hours? Would you try to teach, or even review, an entire style in a two hour session? Of course not! So why try to do so in book format? Sounds awfully silly when you think about it!

As such don’t think about writing a single book to sum up your style. Write a series of books that are leveled. Perhaps start with a book on just the Kihon Waza/ Basic Techniques. Follow that up with a book that teaches/ reviews the first two or three kata. Maybe include applications for those kata in said book, or in a third book. And continue on from there.

And here’s the real kick in the jewels: THIS IS NOT A NEW CONCEPT!

Shotokan put out the “Best of…” series decades ago! Richard Chun and Kim Pyung Soo put out their series in the 1970s! Judo instructors put out the Judo Masterclass Technique series! Shorin Ryu instructors, Okinawan Karate Instructors, Goju Ryu Instructors, etc. you are doing your students and your karate a huge disservice by not catching up to the times and refusing to IMPROVE YOUR CRAFT!

Your students have been begging for better resources! They want to learn! They want access to historical, cultural, and technical knowledge. Some are just bibliophiles (like yours truly) who want something they can put onto a shelf. Some want to share with their friends, and improve the general knowledge of those around them. Unfortunately, when people treat knowledge as sacred treasures to be hoarded and hidden, your karate will die.

Ready for the next kick in the jewels? THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE IN THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND PEOPLE ARE TOO LAZY TO TRANSLATE IT!

Now, what do I think should be avoided? Political references, such as belt systems, “the order my sensei teaches things,” associational nuance, etc. Especially, if your focus is on a style and not a system. There is a difference! But that is not the topic of today.

Hope this has given you some food for thought. Ta-tata-tata-tata-tah!

10th Dan Soke… okay?

Originally typed in 2017 by Matt Sheridan

The very first 10th dan awarded in any martial art was to Yoshitugu Yamashita by the Kodokan in 1935. Since then the Kodokan has only ever recognized 14 other individuals as 10th dan. Of these only 3 are still living.

Karate did not adopt the practice of awarding ranks as high as 10th dan until 1945. In 1945 the Kodokan had only awarded 4 men to 10th dan as that was the year Kyuzo Mifune was awarded 10th dan (his certificate has been made public and can be viewed online). However even to this day very few Japanese and Okinawan karate-ka have been awarded the rank of 10th dan.

Yet when we look outside of Japan (the birthplace of many of these arts and the birthplace of the Dan system used in martial arts), there are many 10th dan individuals that are not only walking around, but are fairly young (less than 60 years old). Now we have discussed before that many people associate the use of a Red Belt to signify a 9th or 10th dan individual. However this is culturally incorrect, as the Red Belt was meant to be associated with the concept of Kanreki (還暦).

Kanreki refers to one full cycle of the Chinese Zodiac, which is 60 years. In Japanese culture this is a celebration of a man’s 60th birthday; in martial arts it represents 60 years of training in the same style, regardless of rank. Yet again we see 10th dan, soke, red belts around the globe who have yet to reach 60 years of experience (shouldn’t be wearing a red belt), are not legally on a Japanese Koseki (shouldn’t be using the title “Soke”), and who were simply self promoted or promoted by a council of their peers.

In the United States of America these councils are quite numerous and they often refer to themselves as “Grand Master Councils” or “Soke Councils.” In person, I have met several individuals who have been promoted by such a council. The first was my first Hapkido instructor. His highest official rank was a 4th dan in Hapkido, yet he was made a 10th dan Soke of his own style by such a council. He was in his late 40s and his children were younger than myself. His son being a 20 year old 5th dan promoted by his father. Online I have met many more including an individual that was given the rank of 10th dan at the age of 19 (he is now 25).

Japanese Days of the Week

Originally written around 2016 by Matt Sheridan

Do you know the days of the week in Japanese? Just like our days of the week are named after old Norse and Greek gods along with the Sun and the Moon. Japanese days of the week also share a common theme.

Sunday in English is named after the Sun, interestingly this stays the same in Japanese. Sunday or Nichiyōbi (日曜日) is The Day of the Sun. ☀️

Mondays in English is named after the Moon, and, like the previous day, this stays the same in Japanese. Monday or Getsuyōbi (月曜日) is The Day of the Moon. 🌙

Unfortunately that is where the similarities end. But don’t let that intimidate you! The rest of the days are named after the Asian elements of nature. Starting with Fire. Tuesday is Kayōbi (火曜日) in Japanese and is The Day of Fire. 🔥

I know what you are thinking, “How am I going to remember that?!?” I’m sure you’ll figure it out. Luckily there is an easy was to remember Wednesday, as Wednesday is The Day of Water. Wednesday… Water… W… W… Wednesday is Suiyōbi (水曜日). 💧

Thursday can be remembered in a similar fashion as Thursday is The Day of Trees. Thursday… Trees… T… T… Thursday is Mokuyōbi (木曜日). Think of Mokujin (木人) from Tekken holding a Bokutō (木刀)… or at least that is something that helped me when learning Mokuyōku. 🌲

Friday, is another toughy, but I have faith in you! Friday is The Day of Metal/ Gold! Often, when we get our firsts jobs, Pay Day is usually on a Friday. Chaching! Chaching. Friday is pronounced Kinyōbi (金曜日) in Japanese. Just match up those I’s and you’ll be winning the gold! 💰🥇🏆🎖

Saturday… oh, Saturday. Saturday is named after another heavenly body. A planet! (And a god, but that won’t help us remember this, so calm down.) The planet, Saturn. We also live on a planet! Which planet? Planet Earth! The best planet in our solar system! Earth? That’s right, Saturday is The Day of Earth* in Japanese, Doyōbi (土曜日). 🌎

See that wasn’t tooooooo hard. And learning the days of the week is something we can practice, quite literally, every day.

Lets recap!

Sunday — Day of the Sun — Nichiyōbi ☀️
Monday — Day of the Moon — Getsuyōbi 🌙
Tuesday — Day of Fire — Kayōbi 🔥
Wednesday — Day of Water — Suiyōbi 💧
Thursday — Day of Tree/ Wood — Mokuyōbi 🌲
Friday — Day of Metal/ Gold — Kinyōbi 🥇
Saturday — Day of Earth — Doyōbi 🌎


Side Notes: While I don’t think it is important to learn Kanji until after Hiragana and Katakana, I’m going to share some Kanji notes now, so that later review is possible. If you don’t wish to possibly confuse yourself, skip this section.

You may have noticed that in the days of the week all of them have the same body with varying prefixes at the end: -yōbi. Because of this, most the time when you look at a calendar or schedule book this section (~曜日) will not be written down. Instead you’ll just have the beginning Kanji marking the days.

日 Sunday ☀️
月 Monday 🌙
火 Tuesday 🔥
水 Wednesday 💧
木 Thursday 🌲
金 Friday 🥇 🏆 💰
土 Saturday 🌎

These also correspond with the Sun, Moon, and natural elements.

日 Sun/ Day ☀️
月 Moon/ Month 🌙
火 Fire 🔥
水 Water 💧
木 Wood/ Tree🌲
金 Metal/ Gold 🥇
土 Earth* 🌎

*This Earth is more like dirt, soil, and the ground. However making the connection between the planet is a helpful mnemonic devise for remembering the days of the week.

Karate Begins and End with… What?

From Matt Sheridan (I don’t remember when I originally wrote this.)

Many of us are familiar with the quote, “Karate begins and ends with Respect,” by Gichin Funakoshi. This is included as the first in his 20 Precepts of Karate-Do. The Japanese for this is 「空手道は礼に始まり礼に終わる」or “Karare-Dō wa rei ni hajimari, rei ni owaru,” however this idea does not originate in karate nor is it exclusive to karate, and will often be seen with 武道 in place of 空手道 or with no subject listed at all. However what I would like to point out is that 礼 doesn’t actually mean, “respect,” in the sense that most of us mean it.

I have discussed the difference between these two words in the past, but Rei is actually much closer to “courtesy,” “manners,” “gratitude,” than it is to the western concept of “respect.” When we say that, “Karate begins with Rei,” respect (an intrinsic feeling regarding another individual or group of individuals) is not what we are talking about. What we are usually implying is that karate-ka should show a degree of courtesy, following the accepted etiquette (manners), and the like. The Japanese are pretty big on that after all, lol.

Well just some food for thought.

1930s Karate Kata

Here’s something you may be interested in. The kata list from a 1934 publication:

From “Toudi Jutsu no Kenkyu” by Itomen Moriteru, translated by Mario McKenna

  1. Sesan
  2. Iha-shi Sesan (lit. Mr. Iha’s Sesan)
  3. Kyan-shi Sesan (lit. Mr. Kyan’s Sesan)
  4. Sepai
  5. Niseshi (Nijushiho)
  6. Sanseru
  7. Kyan-shi Useshi (Gojushiho) (lit. Mr. Kyan’s Useshi)
  8. Itosu-shi Useshi (Gojushiho) (lit. Mr. Itosu’s Useshi)
  9. Suparenpe dai & sho
  10. Toma-shi Ryuho (lit. Mr. Toma’s Ryuho)
  11. Rokishu
  12. Unshu dai & sho
  13. Ryushu dai & sho
  14. Nanshu dai & sho
  15. Pinan shodan, nidan, sandan, yondan, godan
  16. Kusanku dai & sho
  17. Wanshu
  18. Naifanchi shodan, nidan, sandan
  19. Passai dai & sho
  20. Tawada-shi Passai (lit. Mr. Tawada’s Passai)
  21. Jitte
  22. Chinto
  23. Tomari no Chinto
  24. Chinte
  25. Niwon
  26. Unuibu
  27. Nuichue
  28. Jin
  29. Juumu
  30. Kokan
  31. Yoshimura-shi Channan (lit. Mr. Yoshimura’s Channan)
  32. Seyanchin
  33. Chinpe
  34. Jion
  35. Wandau
  36. Rohai
  37. Motobu-shi Sochin (lit. Mr. Motobu’s Sochin)
  38. Aragaki-shi Sochin (lit. Mr. Aragaki’s Sochin)
  39. Pichurin
  40. Hanashiro-shi Kururunfa (lit. Mr. Hanashiro’s Kururunfa)
  41. Wankuwan
  42. Seshun

Timeline of Judo and Karate Belts

This is from my personal research on the topic that was originally published in 2015.

1884, New Years Celebration: Jigoro Kano Introduced Dankyuisei (Dan and Kyu system) to martial arts.

1886, October: Jigoro Kano Introduces Black Belt for Yudansha after the Kodokan Grows to 130+ students. Later the same year he introduced the White Belt for Mudansha.

1924, April: Karate adopts the Dankyuisei, Dōgi, and Obi for the first time, when Gichin Funakoshi awards six Shodan and one Nidan to his students.

1930: Kohaku Obi (Crimson and White Belt) introduced by Jigoro Kano to represent Kodansha, and is considered optional.

1937: Colored Belts introduced by Mikinosuke Kawaishi in Europe. Original system relied on dying the same belt multiple times, and the original color scheme was White, Yellow, Green, Blue, Purple, and Brown, with students getting a new Black Belt when they became a Yudansha. This system was rejected by most Japanese.

1943: Aka Obi (Red Belt) introduced to represent 9th and 10th dan in Judo.

1943-1945: Belt System introduced to Korea via Karate.

1945: Karate’s rank system goes from maxing at 5th dan to maxing at 10th dan.

1959: Youngest legitimately awarded 10th dan goes to Eizo Shimabukuro, who was 34 at the time.

1965: Okinawan Karateka have a meeting to establish time-in-rank and age requirements for Yudansha for the first time. Title Stripe System was introduced via Okinawan Karate-ka.

Karate Myths: The Gi!

From Matt Sheridan, written in 2020.

Myths About the Karate-gi and the Factual History

  1. Originated in Karate?
    False! The Karate-gi was borrowed from Judo after karate was brought to Tokyo in the 1920s.
  2. Ancient Tradition?
    False! As mentioned above karate first adopted the karate-gi in the 1920s. However most styles in Okinawa did not adopt it until the 1940s and some styles never adopted it. Even in Judo, where the Dōgi was first introduced, it was not used until 1907. Due to how the Japanese define Koryu vs Gendai (old style vs modern) the use of a Dōgi is considered a modern practice.
  3. White for Purity?
    True and False! Originally the Dōgi was not white, but rather a natural unbleached cotton. However when instructors started to notice that students where not properly washing their uniforms between practices. Due to this Jigoro Kano started requiring the uniform to be white, which requires more attention to keep looking nice. The most Japanese words for clean and hygienic, such as Seiketsu (清潔), Seijō (清浄, etc., also means pure. This causes a bit of confustion amongst westerners.
  4. Based on Samurai Burial Clothes?
    False! Starting off there are no special historical burial clothes. In Japan it was standard practice to burry people in their underwear which was worn by all walks of life. This undergarment was usually a nagajuban or hadajuban. The purpose of this garment was to protect your kimono from body oils, dead skin, etc. This is a practice mirrored in European cultures, and later American cultures. Furthermore Jigoro Kano was very specific on what inspired the Dōgi. According to him they were a reinforced Kimono, Zubon, and Obi. He further elaborated that the Zubon were included for hygienic reasonings, and modesty’s sake, as he thought it was unbecoming to rub one’s sweaty groin on others (as he taught a grappling art).
  5. The Karate-gi is based on formal wear?
    True and False! Many people who move beyond the “Burrial Clothes” myth are often met with a secondary false belief, that Kimono are formal wear, and since the Karate-gi is based on a Kimono they are also formal wear. However the idea of a Kimono as strict formal wear is actually a modern concept spread around the time of WWII. Around this time Japanese schools and businesses were requiring western style clothing, due to this Kimono makers were taking quite a hit in business, so they started an advertising campaign to promote Kimono as formal wear. However prior to this time Kimono were actually daily wear worn by all walks of life. You were just as likely to see a kimono on a poor farmer as you were a courtesan, as likely to see them on small children as you were men and women. However when Jigoro Kano introduced the Dōgi it’s original purpose was as a formal competition uniform, however he later decided to utilize it as a daily training uniform.
  6. Never Wash Your Obi?
    True and False! In Japan both in Karate and Judo the obi is washed pretty regularly. The Obi used in martial arts is based on a Kaku Obi and even to this day many of them don’t have a core. These types of obi are washed regularly. However after the core was added many people, especially in tropical places like Hawaii and Okinawa where there is high levels of humidity in the air, stopped washing their belt in order to prevent the core from mildewing. However outside of these places, this is not an issue. In general it is a good practice to wash your obi between once a week and once a month. Wash by hand with a gentle detergent, rinse and wring out, and hang dry. This process is non-damaging. However you should not wash belts made of silk.
  7. Never replace your belt?
    False! It is pretty standard in almost all martial arts to replace the obi when it becomes so damaged that it no longer fulfills it purpose: keeping the uniform tied and displaying relative rank.

This information is being provided for pure educational purposes. Within martial arts we have a tendency of believing dogma without researching the validity of such. This is not a good thing.

Shodan as a Professional Rank

From Matt Sheridan, written in 2019

As we know the Dankyuisei (段級位制), or Dan and Kyu Rank System, was adopted into martial arts New Years of 1884 by Jigoro Kano. Prior in October of 1883 Jigoro Kano, at the age of 23, receices a Menkyo Kaiden. I have talked extensively about martial arts move from the Menkyo (免許) system to the Menjo (免状) system, so lets not focus on that here. Lets focus on Kyu and Dan, where they come from, and how they were originally used.

So where does the Dankyuisei come from?

As most of us know Jigoro Kano adopted this system from the game of Go. The Kyu system in Go now extends as high as 30th Kyu and the Dan system is now split into two aspects Amateur and Professional. Amateur Dan go from 1 to 7 and Professional Dan go from 1 to 9. Many believe the rank system in Go only dates back to the 17th century due to the fact Tokugawa popularized the game in Japan. However both Go and its rank system date back to China and one of the first documentations on its rank system dates back to the 2nd century, where it was described to have a Nine Refinement System (九品制). This Nine Refinement System being comparable to the 9 Professional Dan used today.

How did Jigoro Kano first used the Dankyuisei?

Before we move on try to remove any preconceived notions you currently have of the Dankyuisei! How things are now is the product of 130 years of development, so obviously when Kano first adopted the Dankyuisei, these things had yet to develop, obviously. Kano’s original system adopted in 1884 had 3 Kyu and 3 Dan, and that was it. Around this time the Kodokan (founded in 1882) had less than 27 students. Kano only awarded two Dan: one to Tomita Tsunejiro and the other to Seigo Shiro.

Of Kano’s students these were the only two who were capable and trusted to run classes at the Kodokan in Kano’s absence. These Yudansha (有段者) were assistant instructors that could competently run the school and teach classes. This is an important thing to note due to the fact that this was prior to when Kano implemented his scaffolded curriculum system, so rank wasn’t based on competence within the curriculum. (Dai Gokyo through Dai Ikkyo) You see, in Go, Dan was considered a professional rank and originally in Judo it was as well.

Why people think Dan-i isn’t a professional rank?

After receiving a Menkyo Kaiden, Jigoro Kano, introduced the Dankyuisei within the matter of months (October 1883 to January 1884) as a a replacement for the Menkyo system. Yudansha began spreading Judo all across Japan, to Okinawa, Korea, and then on to Europe and the Americas. But eventually the Menkyo system got reinstated at some point with the use of titles, most likely due to influence from the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. We know the titles Renshi (錬士) and Hanshi (範士) were used in antiquity, as well as by Koryu Budo that continued to use the Menkyo system, and initially rejected the dankyuisei. Eventually the title of Kyoshi (教士) was also introduced. When these titles got introduced to the Gendai Budo (現代武道) styles is when we started seeing seeing Dan-i being downplayed for titles yet again.

How does this pertain to karate?

As we know karate originally had no ranking systems and also had no title systems. The Ryukyu Feudal system was not a ranking system within karate. Yes, many karate-ka prior to the 1860s held the titles of Pechin or Udun, but these were not martial arts titles nor ranks.

Karate first officially adopted the rank system in April of 1924, but even at this time there were no titles being used. Many karate Yudansha went on to open their own clubs and programs, still before titles were introduced. Then the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai began to force titles onto high profile karate-ka, such as the head of a style, the head of a major -kan or -kai, etc. People like Chojun Miyagi (head of the Okinawan region of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai), Gichin Funakoshi (head of the Shotokan and founder of Shotokai), Kanken Toyama (head of the Shudokan), Kenwa Mabuni (founder of Shito Ryu), etc were all awarded the title of Renshi. Then later, starting with Chojun Miyagi in 1937, the title of Kyoshi began to be awarded by the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (a fact I find somewhat amusing because Miyagi was said to strongly dislike the use of titles). These titles were not being goven to just any professional, but rather the top professionals in their field. Many instructors ran schools under these others, but were not title holders.

This differs from the viewpoint held by some modern practitioners that believe the first professional “rank” is Renshi at 6th Dan, followed by Kyoshi and Hanshi. Something easily dismissed with the fact that prior to 1946, 6th Dan didn’t even exist within karate: titles were completely separated from rank, rank was being awarded by people who held no rank, etc.

In the 70+ years since then the standardization of ranks and titles really stemmed from the All Japanese Karate Federation and the larger associations in Okinawa. Early on there were no age requirements. There were no training requirements. These were all things that came about after the 1950s. For example in 1959 Kanken Toyama awarded a 10th Dan to Eizo Shimabukuro, and despite what modern practitioners think of this, at the time this was a fully legitimate proceeding.

Anyways, back to Shodan as a professional rank. Before being introduced to martial arts, Shodan was a professional rank in Go. In Judo when the Dankyuisei was first introduced Shodan was considered a professional rank, denoting someone who can teach and run a school. When it was introduced to Karate, many Shodan through Godan in Japan went on to found their own schools, clubs, styles, and associations. Even after the Dankyuisei and titles were introduced to karate, those without rank and titles went on to start their own things (such as the students of Miyagi, who were never given ranks and titles by Miyagi). It wasn’t till the 1960s, when many second and third generation karate-ka were starting to get older that we saw modern standards introduced.

Ultimately, it is you (if you are an instructor) that gets to decide the importance placed on Shodan.

Shorin Ryu Techniques: 松林流

Kamae-Kata (構え方)

  • Soto-Hachiji Shizentai-Dachi (外八字自然体立ち)
  • Chokuritsu-Fudo-Dachi (直立不動立ち)
  • Heisoku-Dachi (閉足立ち)

Tachi-Kata (立ち方)

  • Shizentai-Dachi (自然体立ち)
    • Soto-Hachiji Shizentai-Dachi (外八字自然体立ち)
    • Hidari-Ashi-Mae Shizentai-Dachi (左足前自然体立ち)
    • Migi-Ashi-Mae Shizentai-Dachi (右足前自然体立ち)
  • Jun-Shizentai-Dachi (准自然体立ち)
    • Chokuristu-Fudo-Dachi (直立不動立ち)
    • Heisoku-Dachi (閉足立ち)
    • Neko-Ashi-Dachi (猫足立ち)
  • Jigotai-Dachi/ Shiko-Dachi (自護体立ち・四股立ち)
  • Naihanchi-Dachi/ Kiba-Dachi (ナイハンチ立ち・騎馬立ち)
  • Zenkutsu-Dachi (前屈立ち)
  • Naname-Zenkutsu-Dachi (斜め前屈立ち)
  • Kokutsu-Dachi (後屈立ち)
  • Kosa-Dachi (交差立ち)
  • Ippon-Ashi-Dachi (一本足立ち)
  • Iaigoshi-Dachi (居合越し立ち)

Seme-Kata (攻め方)

  • Seiken Waza (正拳技)
    • Jodan-Zuki (上段突き)
    • Chudan-Zuki (中段突き)
    • Gedan-Zuki (下段突き)
    • Kaku-Zuki (角突き)
    • Tomoe-Zuki (巴突き)
    • Sayu-Zuki (左右突き)
    • Kakushi-Zuki (隠し突き)
    • Oi-Zuki (追い突き)
    • Wari-Uke-zuki (割受け突き)
    • Morote-Zuki (両手突き)
  • Yubi Waza (指技)
    • Nukite-Zuki (貫手立ち)
    • Morote-Nukite-Zuki (両手貫手突き)
    • Shi-Zuki (嘴突き)
  • Uchi Waza (打ち技)
    • Uraken-Uchi (裏拳打ち)
    • Kentsui-Uchi (拳槌打ち)
    • Shuto-Uchi (手刀打ち)
      • Kyobu Shuto-Uchi (胸部手刀打ち)
      • Kyobu Morote Shuto-Uchi (胸部両手手刀打ち)
      • Kyobu-Soete Shuto-Uchi (胸部添え手手刀打ち)
    • Haito-Uchi (背刀打ち)
  • Ate Waza (当て技)
    • Hiji-Ate (肘当て)
      • Tate Hiji-Ate (縦肘当て)
      • Yoko Hiji-Ate (横肘当て)
      • Ushiro Hiji-Ate (後ろ肘当て)
      • Sasae Hiji-Ate (支え肘当て)
    • Shotei-Ate (掌底当て)
      • Jodan Shotei-Ate (上段掌底当て)
      • Chudan Shotei-Ate (中段掌底当て)
      • Tomoe Shotei-Ate (巴掌底当て)

Uke-Kata (受け技)

  • Seiken-Ude-Uke (正拳腕受け)
    • Jodan Uke (上段受け)
    • Chudan Soto-Uke (中段外受け)
    • Chudan Yoko-Uke (中段横受け)
    • Chudan Uchi-Uke (中段内受け)
    • Gedan Uke (下段受け)
    • Gedan Yoko-Barai-Uke (下段横払い受け)
    • Sasae-Uke (支え受け)
    • Sayu-Barai-Uke (左右払い受け)
    • Jodan Wari-Uke (上段割受け)
    • Chudan Wari-Uke (中段割受け)
    • Jodan Kosa-Uke (上段交差受け)
    • Gedan Kosa-Uke (下段交差受け)
    • Morote Soe-Uke (両手添え受け)
    • Chudan Soto-Mawashi-Uke (中段外回し受け)
    • Morote-Barai-Uke (両手払い受け)
    • Hazushi-Uke (外し受け)
    • Otoshi-Uke (落とし受け)
  • Shuto- / Haito- (手刀・背刀)
    • Chudan Soto-Shuto-Uke (中段外手刀受け)
    • Jodan Uchi-Shuto-Uke (上段内手刀受け)
    • Chudan Yoko-Shuto-Uke (中段横手刀受け)
    • Gedan Shuto-Uke (下段手刀受け)
    • Gedan Shuto Yoko-Barai-Uke (下段手刀横払い受け)
    • Chudan Hasami-Uke (中段挟み受け)
    • Makite-Uke (巻手受け)
    • Magetori-Barai-Uke (曲げ取り払い受け
    • Torite-Uke (取り手受け)
    • Sagurite-Uke (探り手受け
    • Gedan Heito-Yoko-Uke (下段背刀横受け)
  • Shotei-Uke (掌底受け)
    • Chudan Shotei-Uke (中段掌底受け)
    • Gedan Shotei-Uke (下段掌底受け)
  • Hiji-Uke (肘受け)
  • Hangetsu-Barai-Uke (半月払い受け)

Keri-Kata (蹴り方)

  • Kyobu-Geri (胸部蹴り)
    • Josokutei-Geri (上足底蹴り)
  • Fukubu-Geri (腹部蹴り)
    • Tsumasaki-Geri (爪先蹴り)
  • Kinteki-Geri / Kintama-Geri (金的蹴り・金玉蹴り)
    • Sokko-Geri (足甲蹴り)
  • Sokuto-Geri (足刀蹴り)
  • Nidan-Geri (二段蹴り)

Kamae-Kata: Part 2 (構え方)

  • Suirakan no Kamae (酔羅漢の構え)?
  • Ryu-no-Shita no Kamae (龍の舌の構え)
  • Sagurite no Kamae (探り手の構え)
  • Hotoku-Gamae (仏構え)?
  • Tenshin no Kamae (転身の構え)
  • Ura-Gamae (裏構え)

Shorin Ryu Technique Terminology: 松林流

Karate Japanese Terminology:

Hidari (左): Left

Migi (右): Right

Mae (前): Front

Yoko (横): Side

Ushiro (後ろ): Backward; Behind

Soto (外): Outside

Uchi (内): Inside

Gedan (下段): Low; Low Level; Lower

Chudan (中段): Center; Center Level; Middle

Jodan (上段): High; High Level; Higher

Kamae/ -gamae (構え): Posture; Ready

Tachi/ -dachi (立ち): Stance(s); Stand

Tsuki/ -zuki (突き): Thrust

Uke (受け): Receive; Receiving; Defense

Keri/ -geri (蹴り): Kick; Kicking

Kata/ -gata (形・型): Pattern; Form

Kata (方): Method

Seme (攻め): Attack

Uchi (打ち): Smash; Pound; Hit

Ate (当て): Hit

Nage (投げ): Throw; Take Down

Katame/ -gatame (固め): Set; Pin

Ken/ Kobushi (拳): Fist

Seiken (正拳): Correct Fist

Kentsui (拳槌): “Hammer Fist”

Uraken (裏拳): Back Fist

Ude (腕): Arm; Forearm

Te/ Shu (手): Hand; Arm

Hiji (肘): Elbow

Enpi/ Empi (猿臂): Monkey Arm; Monkey Elbow

Shotei (掌底): Palm Heel; Palm Base

Shuto/ Tegatana (手刀): Hand Blade; “Knife Hand”

Haito (背刀): Back of Blade; “Ridge Hand”

Ashi/ Soku (足): Foot; Leg

Tsumasaki (爪先): Protruding Claw

Sokutei (足底): Foot Base; Sole of Foot

Josokutei (上足底): Ball of Foot

Sokko (足甲): Instep; Top of Foot

Sokuto (足刀): Blade of Foot

Hiza (膝): Knee

Kyobu (胸部): Chest

Fukubu (腹部): Abdomen

Kinteki (金的): Golden Target; Groin

Kintama (金玉): Golden Jewels; Groin

Koshi/ -goshi (腰): Hips; Lower Back; Waist

Harai/ -barai (払い): Sweep; Sweeping

Morote (両手): Both Hands

Sasae (支え): Support; Prop

Soe (添え): Accompany; Support

Wari (割): Split; Proportion

Sayu (左右): Left and Right

Kosa (交差): Crossing; Intersecting

Kaku (角): Square; Right Angle

Kakushi (隠し): Hiding; Concealing 

Oi (追い): Chasing

Hazushi (外し): To Remove; To Unfasten

Otoshi (落とし): Dropping

Maki (巻き): Winding; Twisting

Tori (取り): To Take

Mage (曲げ): To Incline; To Lean; To Bend

Saguri (探り): To Search; To Probe

Ura (裏): Behind; Hidden from View

Tate (縦): Vertical; North-to-South

Mawashi (回し): Turning

Tomoe (巴): Half Circle; Tadpole Shaped

Hangetsu (半月): Half Moon; Half Circle

Ippon (一本): One Point

Nihon (二本): Two Point

Nidan (二段): Two Levels

Sanbon (三本): Three Point